Male reproductive cell is known as sperm. The normal range of sperm count is 40 million to 300 million sperms per milliliter of semen. Medically, low sperm count is denoted when the count is below than 10 million per milliliter of semen. Human effective sperm count is considered from 20 million if the sperm histology and motility are normal. Histology means shape of the sperm cells and motility means movement of the sperm. Both these factors are important for healthy sperm. Low sperm count causes male infertility.
The five Reasons For Low Sperm Count Are:
Malfunctioning Of Endocrine Glands
Different hormones are responsible for sperm production. Pituitary gland works as a master gland and controls sperm production by stimulating the testes. Testes are stimulated by Luteinizing hormone (LH) which is secreted from pituitary gland. When testes become stimulated, they produce testosterone which is responsible for sperm production. Pituitary gland is situated in the hypothalamus of the brain. Disorders like pituitary tumor, over production of prolactin hormone (responsible for lower down the testosterone levels), aging and medication like chemotherapy are responsible for impaired function of testes. Testosterone production is also depends upon thyroid gland and adrenal gland. Hypothyroidism causes lower production of sperm. Adrenal cortex secrets androgen and is directly link up with testosterone production. Certain hormonal therapy like testosterone replacement therapy causes low sperm count.
Sinking ejaculation is not a disease but a mojor symptom of different ailment. Varicocele is one of the major causes of sinking ejaculation. In varicocele, veins that drain the testicle become inflamed. For this, temperature of the testes become increased which destroys the sperms. Sexually transmitting infections like chlamydia and gonorrhea lead to low sperm count by sinking the ejaculation. Less commonly prostatitis, Urinary tract infection and reproductive organ infections may affects the sperm count. Certain medical conditions like diabetes, spinal injuries, and surgery of the bladder, prostate or urethra can also create ejaculation problem. Prolong use of steroidal drugs, antifungal and antibiotic therapy, ulcer protective medications causes sinking ejaculation and low sperm count.
Defective Sperm Duct
Defective sperm duct also lowers the sperm count. Sperm duct can be damaged by accidental trauma. Congenital blockage of testicles causes difficulty in production and storage of sperm, whereas, the sperm duct blockage restrict the smooth flow of the sperm. Both the conditions cause low sperm count. Cyst formation in testes causes fibrosis which also reduces the sperm count. Some hereditary conditions are also responsible for birth without sperm duct.
Prolong exposure to industrial chemicals such as benzenes, toluene, xylene, herbicides, pesticides, organic solvents, painting materials and heavy metals like lead may causes reduction in sperm count. Frequent exposure to radiation therapy causes permanent reduction of sperm count. Usually frequent use of hot bath like saunas or hot tubs is not recommended, because they are not good for healthy sperm. It may temporarily reduce sperm count. Extended sitting posture, tight underwear or using a laptop on your lap for prolongs period also may reduce sperm production due to increment of the temperature in your scrotum. The clothing quality of underwear has significant affect on sperm count and possible cause of reduced fertility due to heat generated in the testicles.
Unhealthy Life Style
Unhealthy life style can cause low sperm count. Abuse of illegal drugs like misusing of anabolic steroids can cause shrinkage of the testicles. Anabolic steroids increase muscle strength, but one of the major side effects is reduction of sperm production. Other addictive drugs like cocaine or marijuana can also decrease the sperm production and morphology and motility is degraded which causes low quality of sperm production. These side effects are reversible; means withdrawing of the drug’s use again regenerate the good quality of sperm and increase the count. Consumption of alcohol is also lower down testosterone level and causes reduction of sperm production. Occupational hazards including extended use of computer, stress due to work load, and irregularity of sleeping habits due shifting jobs may trigger the risk of low sperm count. Surveys revealed that male smokers have lowers sperm count as compare with non- smoker male. Adrenal hormones secretion is affected by emotional stress. Severe or prolonged emotional stress can cause decrease of adrnocorticotropic hormone production and due to this sperm production is reduced.
Another issue of low sperm count is overweight or obesity. Sperm analyzing determinants such as sperm sample is collected just after your last ejaculation; just after a chronic illness or stressful event; or may during the semen collection some amount of sample spilled from sample container. Generally these factors should consider during sample collection. For these reasons several semen samples taken over a period of time.